My adventures in the woods, streams, rivers, fields, and lakes of Michigan


Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola

Note: this post, while published, is a work in progress, as are all posts in this series, My Photo Life List. My goal is to photograph every species of bird that is seen on a regular basis here in Michigan, working from a list compiled by the Michigan chapter of the Audubon Society. This will be a lifelong project, that I began in January of 2013, and as I shoot better photos of this, or any other species, I will update the post for that species with better photos when I can. While this series is not intended to be a field guide per se, my minimum standard for the photos in this series is that one has to be able to make a positive identification of the species in my photos. The information posted here is from either my observations or the Wikipedia, the online free encyclopedia, however, I have personally shot all the photos appearing in this series.

Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola

The Virginia rail (Rallus limicola) is a small water bird, of the family Rallidae. These birds remain fairly common despite continuing loss of habitat, but are secretive by nature and more often heard than seen. They are also considered a game species in some provinces and states, though rarely hunted.

Adults are mainly brown, darker on the back and crown, with orange-brown legs. To walk through dense vegetation, they have evolved a laterally compressed body and strong forehead feathers adapted to withstand wear from pushing through vegetation. Virginia rails have the highest ratio of leg-muscle to flight-muscle of all birds (25% – 15% of body weight respectively). They have long toes used to walk on floating vegetation. Their tail is short and they have a long slim reddish bill. Their cheeks are grey, with a light stripe over the eye and a whitish throat. Chicks are black. Juveniles are blackish brown on upper parts with rufous on the edge of feathers and brownish bill and legs. Their underparts are dark brown to black, while the face is grayish brown. Both sexes are very similar, with females being slightly smaller. Adults measure 20–27 cm, with a wingspan of 32–38 cm, and usually weigh 65-95 g.

The Virginia rail lives in freshwater and brackish marshes, sometimes salt marshes in winter. Northern populations migrate to the southern United States and Central America. On the Pacific coast, some are permanent residents. Its breeding habitat is marshes from Nova Scotia to Southern British Columbia, California and North Carolina, and in Central America. It often coexists with Soras.

The Virginia rail often runs to escape predators, instead of flying. When it does fly, it is usually short distances or for migration. It can also swim and dive using its wings to propel itself.

This bird has a number of calls, including a harsh kuk kuk kuk, usually heard at night. It also makes grunting noises. In spring, it will make tick-it or kid-ick calls.

The Virginia rail probe with its bill in mud or shallow water, also picking up food by sight. It mainly eat insects and other aquatic invertebrates, like beetles, flies, dragonflies, crayfish, snails and earthworms. It can also eat aquatic animals like frogs, fish and some small snakes, as well as seeds. Animal preys constitute the biggest part of this bird’s diet, but vegetation contributes to its diet in the fall and winter.

Courtship starts around May. The male will raise his wings and run back and forth next to the female. Both sexes bow, and the male feeds the female. Before copulation, the male approaches the female while grunting. Virginia rails are monogamous. Both parents build the nest and care for the young, whereas only the male defend the territory. The nest is built as the first egg is laid and consists of a basket of woven vegetation. The nest is made using plants like cattails, reeds and grasses. They also build dummy nests around the marsh. They nest near the base of emergent vegetation in areas with vegetation creating a canopy above the nest.

This birds lays a clutch of 4 to 13 white or buff eggs with sparse gray or brown spotting. The eggs generally measure 32 by 24 millimetres (1.26 by 0.94 in). They are incubated by both parents for a period of 20 to 22 days, in which the parents continue to add nesting material to conceal the nest. When the eggs hatch, the parents feed the young for two to three weeks, when the chicks become independent. The young can fly in less than a month. The pair bond between the parents breaks after the young become independent.


On to my photos:

These images were shot during the summer of 2016 during the course of several visits to the Muskegon Lake Nature Preserve and over the course of several weeks. What is also notable about these images is that they were all shot with my Canon 7D Mk II, 300 mm L series lens, and with the 2 X tele-converter behind the lens.

Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola


These birds are very secretive and difficult to see as they never venture out into the open, this is a more typical view of one.

Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola

But, through perseverance and awaiting for the birds to step into more open areas, I was able to shoot a few good images of them.

Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola


Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola


Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola


Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola


This is number 207 in my photo life list, only 143 to go!

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!



I was a bit rusty, but I loved it!

You’ve already seen one of my images from my last outing, but it will appear here again, along with my thoughts on how I went about shooting it. It was shot on the second to last day of February, the first really nice day that we had around here when I also had the day off from work. And, what a glorious day it was! Not only did it warm up to near 60 degrees (15 C) in the afternoon, but there was great light for most of the time while I was out. That would have been enough for the day to be a memorable one, but on top of those things, the early migrating birds have begun to arrive, and some of them were singing already.

Red-winged blackbird in full “song”

That is, if you call the noises that the red-winged blackbirds make songs. Still, it was a great start to the day, hearing the early sounds of spring after such a long cold winter.

Actually, I was a bit disappointed in that image the way that it came out of the camera. I’m not sure why, but the red patch on the blackbird’s wing was too orange, not red as it looked to me as I shot the image. I used Lightroom to shift the color of the red patch from the orange cast that it had to begin with, more towards red as it appears in the image that you see above.

I’ve had the same thing happen to me before, the red patches on the red-winged blackbird’s wings often look too orange compared to how they look in real life. I’m not sure why, but I think that it has to do with the lack of dynamic range in the sensor of my 7D Mk II, but only time will tell about that. I probably should have worked on the sky in the background as well, since the sky was a deeper blue than the way that it appears in this image.

Anyway, with no clouds to block the sun for a change, most of the critters were out enjoying the sun and the warmth, none more than this muskrat.


I shot photos of another muskrat basking in the sun, but it was partially hidden in the weeds, so I’m not going to post any of them, I have enough photos for the day as it is.

One thing that I noticed soon after I began shooting photos was that I was a bit rusty, and I found it hard to get the subject in the viewfinder. My hand to eye coordination was off a bit because I’ve only shot a few photos this year so far. I missed what could have been good photos of a snowy owl in flight, almost directly overhead and in good light, but I couldn’t track the owl because of my being rusty. So, I did what I always do when I feel the need to practice that aspect of photography, I found some gulls to shoot.

Ring-billed gull in flight

And, I couldn’t resist a portrait shot of a gull as well.

Ring-billed gull

After I had practiced shooting gulls in flight with my 400 mm lens, I had an idea to try, switching to a wide-angle lens to get a large number of flying gulls in the frame at one time. So, I put the 16-35 mm lens set to 35 mm on the camera, and shot away. By the way, that lens at 35 mm on my crop sensor camera is 56 mm of effective focal length, about what our eyes see.

Gulls in flight

Not bad, I thought to my self, so I continued shooting with the wide set-up, notice the gull in this next one, slightly to the left and below the center of the frame, attacking the gull below it.

Gulls in flight

Finally, I got the type of shot that I had in mind when I first thought of trying the wide set-up.

Gulls flying in formation

I probably should have used a polarizing filter on the lens, I did think of it at the time, but I prefer to take one step at a time. Since this was my first attempt at using a wide-angle lens for birds in flight, I wanted to keep things as simple as possible. I also could have zoomed out to get even more gulls in the frame as well, but as I said, one step at a time, I’m pleased with how these images turned out. I will keep these images in mind the next time that I’m close to a flock of birds in flight.

The only other notable things about the time that I spent at the wastewater facility were seeing four snowy owls within sight of one another…

Snowy owl number 1

…all perched on the remaining ice…

Snowy owl numbers 2 and 3

… which I’m sure that they did to keep the zoo which is still following them around at a distance…

Snowy owl number 4

…but, I didn’t shoot a photo of the zoo.

The other notable thing was the lack of birds, there were few waterfowl around other than Canada geese and even very few mallards, no eagles in sight, and very few smaller birds other than a few horned larks.

Horned lark

By the time that I shot that photo, it was warming up nicely, so I decided to move to the Muskegon Lake Nature Preserve (MLNP) to shoot small songbirds.

That’s when I shot this image from my last post.

Black-capped chickadee on a bird feeder

I don’t want to cast dispersion on others who photograph birds at a bird feeder, but I find it too darned easy to shoot really good images like that one when you know where the birds will be, what they’ll do, and how to position one’s self for great lighting. I can see how shooting photos of birds at a feeder could be a pleasant hobby, and it is a way to get great images of the birds. Although, there’s not much difference between shooting the birds actually at the feeder and what I did for most of my time at the MLNP. I did sit on a picnic table near the feeders, catching the birds…

Dark-eyed junco


Dark-eyed junco

…and the squirrels…

Red squirrel


Red squirrel

…as they came to the feeders to chow down.

I can’t think of many ways to spend an afternoon as enjoyable as the one that I had. The sun was warm, I was out of the nippy wind that was blowing in from over the still very cold waters of Lake Michigan and still frozen Muskegon Lake, and there were birds singing all around me.

Male northern cardinal singing

I sat at the picnic table most of the time, however there were a few times when I’d have to stand up to get the best view of a bird, with the best background that I could have in an image. However, for the most part, I just sat and observed what was going on around me, shooting photos when I had a chance to get a good one. Of course, the feeders being nearby meant that I had plenty of wildlife around me all the time, if that was always the case, I could easily get into the habit of sitting in one spot for as long as there were things to photograph regularly.

One of the things that I observed was a red squirrel lapping up the sap that was flowing down a small tree.

Red squirrel drinking sap from a tree

I think that I’ve posted similar photos in the past, but I don’t remember if I got an image where you could see the squirrel’s tongue before. Anyway, if I’d have thought about it, I should have gone over and tasted the sap myself, to see what it tastes like. My guess is that it’s sweet, something like unprocessed maple syrup, but I could be wrong about that. Since I often see squirrels drinking sap, it must be something that they enjoy.

On the other hand, this gray squirrel was content to scrounge for seeds that birds had dropped on the ground.

Gray squirrel

There were several squirrels around, including a black morph gray squirrel, but I wasn’t able to get a photo of that squirrel. Every time that it approached my position, one or both of the other gray squirrels would chase the black morph squirrel away. I was able to shoot a few good photos of the regular gray squirrels though…

Gray squirrel

…including this one that really shows off the colors and details of the fur of the squirrel’s tail, although I blew out the highlights of the squirrel’s ears.

Gray squirrel

Did I mention that it was a wonderful early spring day?

I already showed a photo of a male cardinal singing, there were several in the area. However, as I was observing the squirrels and other birds in the area, I was somewhat surprised that the male cardinals didn’t seem very interested in visiting the feeders there. If they weren’t singing, they were simply perched in the lower vegetation, looking around.

Male cardinal

It also dawned on me eventually that I wasn’t seeing any female cardinals. It turns out that I wasn’t the only one hanging out near the feeders for birds to show up, the male cardinals were also, but they only had one specific bird that they were waiting for, female cardinals.

Female northern cardinal

Whenever a female cardinal would approach the feeders, the males would all fly over towards her, trying to woo her into being their mate for the year.

Female northern cardinal

I guess that the females weren’t ready to pick their mate for the year yet though, as most often, they flew away from the pressuring males without ever visiting the feeder. I did find it amazing that the males seemed to know that the lure of food would attract the females though, and that they all seemed to be hanging around waiting for a female to show herself. The female in the photos above left shortly after I shot those photos, as the males were all perching close to her at the time that I shot the images. Cardinals are usually very territorial during the nesting season, however the chance of finding a mate caused the males to not fight over territory, but to spend their time actually finding a mate.

By the way, all of the images that I shot at the MLNP were shot using the 100-400 mm lens and 1.4 X Tele-converter behind it. Working at close range as I was, the 300 mm f/4 prime lens with the 2 X tele-converter would have been an even better set-up to use. I would have been a few mm closer, and I think that the 300 mm lens and extender is a tad sharper than the 100-400 mm lens and 1.4 X extender, but only up close. The 400 mm prime lens doesn’t focus close enough for me to have gotten some of the images that I shot, like this one.

American tree sparrow

That does bring up something that will require more thought if a spend any time at all just sitting to shoot small birds, what set-up will work best. The 100-400 mm lens is the best lens I have to use while moving around, it will focus up close, and for a few of the squirrel photos, I actually zoomed out a little to less than the 560 mm that I get while using the extender.

The 400 mm lens is the sharpest long lens overall that I have, but its minimum focusing distance is 11 1/2 feet, which isn’t close enough for they type of shooting that I did on this day at the MLNP. I’ve found that I can add an extension tube behind that lens to get down to around 8 feet, but then I can’t shoot at longer distances if needed, as when I shot this photo.

Common grackle

The 300 mm lens works very well up close, but it gets softer as the distance to the subject increases, with or without an extender behind it. I’ve used that lens with the 2 X extender in the past, and up close, it’s still as sharp as a tack. This image is from the summer of 2016, but it shows how sharp the 300 mm lens and 2 X extender are when used for subjects close to me, and in good light.

Virginia Rail, Rallus limicola

I can see myself sitting in one place with all three set-ups ready to go depending on the situation. That seems more than a little silly, but each set-up has its own strengths and weaknesses that I have to take into account. Maybe some day, a lens manufacturer will produce the ideal lens, but I doubt if I could afford it if it was ever on the market.

Anyway, a few more photos from the time I spent at MLNP.

Rock dove or pigeon


American tree sparrow


American tree sparrow


Female downy woodpecker


Mourning dove tightrope walking


Mourning dove

Have I mentioned that I thoroughly enjoyed sitting in the sun, listening to the birds singing, shooting a few hundred photos of the more common species of birds and squirrels around here?

One other thing that I should mention, I have finally bitten the bullet and begun to add a small amount of color saturation to my images. Ever since I began shooting in RAW, I’ve had my cameras set to record with nothing added to the images as the camera records them. So, I get the true RAW images in Lightroom, and over time, I’ve noticed that even with a little added vibrance in Lightroom, the colors in my images seem to be a bit drab compared what I see in real life, and in the images shot by others. That’s especially true on a magnificent day such as this one was, the light was as close to perfect as it can get, and yet the colors in the images that I shot seemed to be washed out a little. I didn’t have to add much saturation to the colors to bring these images closer to what I saw through the viewfinder as I pressed the shutter. And, I’m not about to push the saturation slider over to the point where it’s obvious what I’ve done, with unnatural colors and artifacts in the image caused by pushing the color saturation too far. Subtle is still my way of processing my images in Lightroom. That also applies to sharpening, and for that matter, all of the adjustments in Lightroom. I want my images to appear as natural as I can get them, and I’ve found over time, that includes boosting the color saturation just a tad.

As close as the day was to being perfect, my images should reflect that, and not look as though people were seeing an old, faded photo of the things that I shot.

I tried to pay attention to the background while I was shooting, but you can’t always get a clean background when shooting smaller birds.

American robin

And, you can’t always get a clean foreground either, as these images show.

Male house finch

However, since this day was all about enjoying the day and shooting some fair photos of common species, I think that the day was a success.

Male house finch

If only this chickadee didn’t have a twig growing out of its head. 🙂

Black-capped chickadee

If not for the twig in the background, that image would be every bit as good as the one of the chickadee on the feeder. I suppose that I could edit the twig out of the photo in Lightroom, but I’m too lazy to spend that much time on this image.

This week, I took delivery of a tripod collar and quick release plate so that I can mount my 70-200 mm lens on the gimbal head that I have to shoot videos when that lens is the correct one to use. While that set-up doesn’t balance as well on the gimbal head as I had hoped due to the battery grips that I have on the 7D, it will still be better than handholding the camera and lens when shooting video.

With the return of nicer weather, better light, and all that goes with those things, I’m really looking forward to this coming year. While I should know better than to make many plans, I do hope to experiment more this year, as I did when using the wide-angle lens to shoot the gulls in flight.

Despite the negative tone of my last post, things are going well for me this year, other than the weather, and that is already changing for the better. The new job is going well, and I’m much better off financially than I was just a few short months ago before I made the change. Once I get used to dealing with the erratic nature of the scheduling there, I’ll have more time to get outside to play with my camera gear.

I would like to find a spot close to home for those days when I have the time to get out for shorter periods of time than it takes me to go to Muskegon, or one of the other places that I know of now. That’s one of my goals for the year.

Since I plan on doing some experimentation, some scouting, and a few other things that I have in mind, I’m not sure how often I’ll be posting, but I know that it will be more often than it has been the past three months. I can fill a post with images that I shoot in a single day if the day is as nice as this one was.

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!

Bah Humbug!

I began writing this after work on February 11th. A long time ago it seems now as I continue to add more thoughts to it.

It’s been the kind of winter so far where I check out the weather to see what the time frame is going to be for the next winter weather advisory or winter storm warning coming to the area, and if it will be affecting me while I’m working. I think that we had either a warning or advisory every day this past week. Throw in a few wind chill advisories and warnings when it hasn’t been snowing at the same time, and you get an idea of what the weather has been like here in West Michigan this winter.

At the point that I ended the last post I did, I said that I had the day off from work. Sure enough, just about the time that I would have left home to go to Muskegon, the next batch of snow made it onshore from Lake Michigan, and it had begun to snow in Muskegon. I say again, Bah Humbug, I’m sick of winter and the cold and snow.

Just how bad has February been as far as the weather?

Grand Rapids has had measurable snowfall now 11 days in a row, in other words, every day for the month so far. Our average February snowfall is 14.8″ (38 cm) for the entire month, and we are already over 20″ (50 cm) for the month.  Average for an entire winter is 74.9″ (190 cm) and we’re up to 65″ (165 cm) already as of now. February is averaging 7 degrees fahrenheit (14 C) below average, I thought that the thermometer in my Subaru was stuck at 18 degrees (-8 C), but last night it went down to 13 degrees (-10 C). The temperature hasn’t made it above freezing yet this month, and the forecast low temperature the next two days is around 5 degrees (-15 C).

Winters didn’t use to bother me as much as they do now, for one thing, I didn’t drive a truck for a living then. Having to fight the snow and traffic each day is no fun at all. I do get to see how lovely freshly fallen snow can be while I am driving though, it’s not like the old days when I was stuck inside all day and never got to see how it looked outside. Those things take away from my need to get out despite really bad weather conditions.

Then, there’s my passion for photography. In the not too distant past, I used to take a point and shoot camera with me all the time and call it good enough. I could keep the point and shoot camera in a pocket to keep it safe from the weather. However, it was doing just that, always carrying a point and shoot, that rekindled my love for photography. Back in the days of film, I used to shoot a good number of wildlife and nature photographs, but film and the expense of getting the film developed, along with how expensive good camera gear was back then, prevented me from progressing any further along than my old trusty Pentax Spotmatic II camera with a used, low quality 300 mm lens.

It seems like every winter, I look at the point and shoot cameras on the market at the time, and consider purchasing one so that at least I’ll get outside and shoot a few photos from time to time, even if the quality of those photos can’t match what I can do with the “real” cameras and lenses that I currently have. But, then I look at the specs of what the point and shoot cameras are capable of, and see that they don’t come cheap these days for a good one which I would deem worthy enough to carry.

Now that I have quality camera gear, I’m loath to risk it getting damaged by the harsh Michigan winters. That’s even though the camera and lenses that I have now are supposed to be weather sealed and capable of handling snow and cold.

I’ve considered not taking any camera gear with me, and scouting for good locations during the winter months to shoot during the rest of the year, but I know that wildlife uses different habitat in the winter than the rest of the year, so even if I found a great winter spot, it may not be any good at all come spring and summer. And it seems that come this time every year, I start thinking and writing about scouting for places to shoot photos from.

That would be foolishness on my part, the lakes, ponds, and even many streams are frozen over around here this time of year, and I know that birds, and all wildlife for that matter, prefer areas with open water if it’s available. So, it would be much better if I did my scouting during the time of year that I’d plan on being there the most.

It would seem easy enough to find a place in Michigan, which has more public land than other states about the same size, but I’m finding that it isn’t the case. For one thing, most public parks are located on the north shore of the bodies of water that they are on for some reason, I can’t explain it. That would mean shooting into the sun, and poor image quality as a result.

Then, there’s the issue of access, even though it may be public land. Many of the public parks and nature preserves are locked or at least posted as no access before a set time, most often 8 AM. By that time in the summer, the light is already becoming harsh as the sun is getting higher in the sky. And, it isn’t as if I could begin shooting the second that the park opened, it would take some time to get into position and set-up before I could snap the first photo of the day.

Another thing to take into consideration is how crowded the place will be. I’ve found a few good places that I’d like to explore more, but there are so many joggers and cyclists zipping through the area that they scare all the wildlife away.

I’ve been putting a lot of thought into places that I should scout as a place where I could set-up the portable hide that I have and spend time in photographing wildlife at closer range. Generally, I begin to drift off thinking about the larger tracts of near wilderness areas, such as the Pigeon River Country in northern Michigan. But, the thing is, while there’s a great deal of wildlife there, it’s spread out all through the area, the wildlife doesn’t congregate in many places.

On the other hand, when I think of places near where I live, the parcels of land are mere postage stamp size and often surrounded by human activity. There’s the wetlands that I kayaked once a few years ago that often brings reports of rare birds. That wetland area is surrounded by a shopping center, a few hotels, a few industrial buildings, and an expressway. However, there’s no human activity near the water’s edge proper, which is the reason that it draws so many birds in my opinion. It’s the same with the apartment complex where I used to live, there were hundreds of people living there, yet no one but myself ever ventured to the uncleared portion of the land there. And then, there’s the small parcel of land owned by the Michigan Department of Transportation not far from my home, it’s surrounded by farms and a subdivision of houses, yet hardly any one ventures on that land.

It’s taken me a few years to figure this out, but when wildlife has room to spread out without human interference, it does just that, making it more difficult to find places where the wildlife congregates. On the other hand, in areas where there is little suitable habitat for wildlife, the wildlife is forced to make do with what little habitat that they can find, making the density of wildlife in that area greater, especially during spring and fall migration. That’s the reason that these small tracts of land become tiny birding hotspots and so many rare bird reports come from them, there are few other places for the birds to rest during their migration.That even applies to the small park near where I live now, it is a tiny oasis in a sea of suburbia, although suburbia has been encroaching on the park over the past few years, making it less attractive to wildlife in just the few years that I’ve lived near it.

So, I’ve begun to change my thinking as to finding good places to set-up the portable hide, instead of looking for large tracts of undeveloped land. I think that I’d be better off looking for one of the small parcels of land that may be surrounded by development, but where there’s very little human activity within the small parcel of land itself.

By the way, this post many end up being mostly words, with very few photos. I’ve been out with my camera twice since my last post, and both times it was very foggy with poor light, and with so much snow on the ground that it made getting around difficult to say the least. It’s finally beginning to warm up around here, and I’m going to attempt to get a nice day off from work for a change, hoping that I’ll be able to shoot more than a handful of poor photos like this one.

Red-tailed hawk taking flight

The only reason for my posting this photo is to show the subtle colors of the hawk, and the detail in its feathers, despite the poor light.

I have been making what I think is good use of my time though, even if I haven’t been out with the camera much lately. For one thing, I’ve learned how to edit videos from within Lightroom. While there are far more powerful video editing programs on the market, I really don’t want to take the time to learn how to use them effectively, nor do I want to spend a good deal of time editing the videos that I shoot.

Lightroom has limited capabilities, I can trim the videos for length, and also make exposure and white balance corrections to a video, as I’ve done with this one.


Here’s how it looked before my editing.

I was able to cut out the beginning of the video which was wobbly and out of focus, along with improving the exposure, and shifting the white balance to slightly warmer, since the video was shot on a heavily overcast day.

I also watched a video that explained the Canon 5D Mk IV in-depth, and I learned something that made me want that camera more than ever since I watched the video. With my 7D Mk II, I can auto-focus at f/8 as when I use one of my long lenses with the 1.4 X tele-converter, but I can only use the center point at that aperture. That limits my ability to compose exactly the shot that I’d like, or to use the tele-converter when photographing flying birds.

The newer 5D Mk IV will use most or all of the 61 auto-focusing points down to an aperture of f/8, depending on the lens I use, so it will make it easier to get the composition that I want by putting the auto-focus point on a bird’s eye, when the eye may not be in the center of the frame. A couple of months ago, when I was shooting the snowy owls…

Snowy owl

…being able to move the auto-focus point up in the frame would have made that a much better image. The owl’s back is very sharp, but its eyes and face are slightly soft due to being a little out of focus.

I’ve also done some research to quantify just how much of an improvement that I’d see in low-light performance with the 5D MK IV, and it’s around two stops better as far as noise. I can push the 7D Mk II to around 6400 ISO with significant noise reduction and loss of detail that goes with the noise reduction, and still get a usable image for the web. With the 5D Mk IV, the amount of noise that I’d see in an image with the same exposure settings would be similar to what I see when shooting with the 7D at ISO 1600, that would be good enough to print, not just post here in my blog.

To go with that, the 5D also delivers two full stops better dynamic range, which means better shadow details with less noise in my images as well. That would mean that an image like this one…

American crow on blown out snow

…would actually turn out much better. As you can see, the details in the snow have been lost since they were blown out by the 7D’s lower dynamic range due to it being a crop sensor camera. With two full stops better dynamic range combined with two full stops better low-light/less noise capabilities, the 5D Mk IV is looking better to me all the time.

I will lose the 1.6 crop factor, on my 7D, the 400 mm lens I use actually performs as a 640 mm lens, while on the 5D, it will be a true 400 mm lens. However, with the 5D’s better sensor, I think that it will mostly make up for that difference. Plus, since the 5D can use more auto-focus points at f/8, I can put my tele-converters to better use as well to make up for the loss of the crop factor. And, I’ll still have the 7D to use at the times when it’s a better choice than the 5D is. The two of them together will be an awesome pairing, one that I’m really looking forward to using in the future.

Oh, and by the way, it isn’t just for wildlife photography that I’ll be able to use the 5D to better effect. It will also be for macros, where both better low-light performance and extended dynamic range will improve my images a good deal. While the low-light performance isn’t a factor in landscape photography, the two stops of additional dynamic range will be a huge improvement. And, if I do any night photography, as I hope to, then the low-light performance of the 5D will make a huge difference as well, whether it’s star trails, stills of the milky way, or city lights at night.

I know that all of my babbling about photography and my gear is boring to many, but it means a lot to me. On that subject, one of the things that I wanted to try on my last two outings was shooting a few images to stitch together into panoramas, but the fog was so dense both days that I didn’t bother. If I had seen something worth shooting on a foggy day, I would have, but I never saw such a scene. However, that is something that I’d like to work on for the future, even if my practice images never get posted here or anywhere else. The last sunrise that I photographed would have been a great time for a panorama, since the entire sky was colorful, but I didn’t think of it at the time. I’ve found that I need to practice techniques in advance, so that they do pop into my head at the right time, and I’m ready to shoot what I see at the time when I see it, not think about after the opportunity has passed.

I could go on at length about the advantages and disadvantages of producing panoramic images, but I’ll leave it at this. It’s another tool that I need to learn so that it becomes second nature to me to shoot images to be stitched into panoramas that turn out well enough to be proud of.

It’s been warming up over the last week, and as it looks right now, I should have an excellent day off from work for my next photographic outing.

It’s now the last day of February as I’m working on this post, and I did have an excellent day off from work yesterday, with warm temperatures, and great light for a change. It was chilly as I left home, so I started the day at the Muskegon County wastewater facility, but there wasn’t much going on there as far as birds. Once it had really begun to warm up, I moved to the Muskegon Lake Nature Preserve, and spent the rest of my day there. I think that because this post is already too long on words, and short of photos, that I’ll end this one with just one photo from the day, then, begin my next post with the rest of the photos that I’ve saved for blogging. I shot over 600 photos for the day, don’t worry, only a handful will appear in the next post. But, here’s a photo from yesterday.

Black-capped chickadee on a bird feeder

I’ll save my thoughts on this image, and the rest of the images that I shot for the next post.

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!


Northern Pintail, Anas acuta

Note: this post, while published, is a work in progress, as are all posts in this series, My Photo Life List. My goal is to photograph every species of bird that is seen on a regular basis here in Michigan, working from a list compiled by the Michigan chapter of the Audubon Society. This will be a lifelong project, that I began in January of 2013, and as I shoot better photos of this, or any other species, I will update the post for that species with better photos when I can. While this series is not intended to be a field guide per se, my minimum standard for the photos in this series is that one has to be able to make a positive identification of the species in my photos. The information posted here is from either my observations or the Wikipedia, the online free encyclopedia, however, I have personally shot all the photos appearing in this series.

Northern Pintail, Anas acuta

The pintail or northern pintail (Anas acuta) is a duck with wide geographic distribution that breeds in the northern areas of Europe, Asia and North America. It is migratory and winters south of its breeding range to the equator. Unusually for a bird with such a large range, it has no geographical subspecies if the possibly conspecific duck Eaton’s pintail is considered to be a separate species.

This is a large duck, and the male’s long central tail feathers give rise to the species’ English and scientific names. Both sexes have blue-grey bills and grey legs and feet. The drake is more striking, having a thin white stripe running from the back of its chocolate-coloured head down its neck to its mostly white undercarriage. The drake also has attractive grey, brown, and black patterning on its back and sides. The hen’s plumage is more subtle and subdued, with drab brown feathers similar to those of other female dabbling ducks. Hens make a coarse quack and the drakes a flute-like whistle.

The northern pintail is a bird of open wetlands which nests on the ground, often some distance from water. It feeds by dabbling for plant food and adds small invertebrates to its diet during the nesting season. It is highly gregarious when not breeding, forming large mixed flocks with other species of duck. This duck’s population is affected by predators, parasites and avian diseases. Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting and fishing, have also had a significant impact on numbers. Nevertheless, owed to the huge range and large population of this species, it is not threatened globally.

The northern pintail is a fairly large duck with a wing chord of 23.6–28.2 cm (9.3–11.1 in) and wingspan of 80–95 cm (31–37 in). The male is 59–76 cm (23–30 in) in length and weighs 450–1,360 g (0.99–3.00 lb), and therefore is considerably larger than the female, which is 51–64 cm (20–25 in) long and weighs 454–1,135 g (1.001–2.502 lb). The northern pintail broadly overlaps in size with the similarly-widespread mallard, but is more slender, elongated and gracile, with a relatively longer neck and (in males) a longer tail. The unmistakable breeding plumaged male has a chocolate-brown head and white breast with a white stripe extending up the side of the neck. Its upperparts and sides are grey, but elongated grey feathers with black central stripes are draped across the back from the shoulder area. The vent area is yellow, contrasting with the black underside of the tail, which has the central feathers elongated to as much as 10 cm (3.9 in). The bill is bluish and the legs are blue-grey.

The adult female is mainly scalloped and mottled in light brown with a more uniformly grey-brown head, and its pointed tail is shorter than the male’s; it is still easily identified by its shape, long neck, and long grey bill. In non-breeding (eclipse) plumage, the drake pintail looks similar to the female, but retains the male upperwing pattern and long grey shoulder feathers. Juvenile birds resemble the female, but are less neatly scalloped and have a duller brown speculum with a narrower trailing edge.

The pintail walks well on land, and swims well. It has a very fast flight, with its wings slightly swept-back, rather than straight out from the body like other ducks. In flight, the male shows a black speculum bordered white at the rear and pale rufous at the front, whereas the female’s speculum is dark brown bordered with white, narrowly at the front edge but very prominently at the rear, being visible at a distance of 1,600 m (0.99 mi).

The male’s call is a soft proop-proop whistle, similar to that of the common teal, whereas the female has a mallard-like descending quack, and a low croak when flushed.

This dabbling duck breeds across northern areas of Eurasia south to about Poland and Mongolia, and in Canada, Alaska and the Midwestern United States. Mainly in winters south of its breeding range, reaches almost to the equator in Panama, northern sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South Asia. Small numbers migrate to Pacific islands, particularly Hawaii, where a few hundred birds winter on the main islands in shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural habitats. Transoceanic journeys also occur: a bird that was caught and ringed in Labrador, Canada, was shot by a hunter in England nine days later, and Japanese-ringed birds have been recovered from six US states east to Utah and Mississippi. In parts of the range, such as Great Britain and the northwestern United States, the pintail may be present all year.

The northern pintail’s breeding habitat is open unwooded wetlands, such as wet grassland, lakesides or tundra. In winter, it will utilise a wider range of open habitats, such as sheltered estuaries, brackish marshes and coastal lagoons. It is highly gregarious outside the breeding season and forms very large mixed flocks with other ducks.

Both sexes reach sexual maturity at one year of age. The male mates with the female by swimming close to her with his head lowered and tail raised, continually whistling. If there is a group of males, they will chase the female in flight until only one drake is left. The female prepares for copulation, which takes place in the water, by lowering her body; the male then bobs his head up and down and mounts the female, taking the feathers on the back of her head in his mouth. After mating, he raises his head and back and whistles.

Breeding takes place between April and June, with the nest being constructed on the ground and hidden amongst vegetation in a dry location, often some distance from water. It is a shallow scrape on the ground lined with plant material and down. The female lays seven to nine cream-coloured eggs at the rate of one per day; the eggs are 55 mm × 38 mm (2.2 in × 1.5 in) in size and weigh 45 g (1.6 oz), of which 7% is shell. If predators destroy the first clutch, the female can produce a replacement clutch as late as the end of July. The hen alone incubates the eggs for 22 to 24 days before they hatch. The precocial downy chicks are then led by the female to the nearest body of water, where they feed on dead insects on the water surface. The chicks fledge in 46 to 47 days after hatching, but stay with the female until she has completed molting.

Around three-quarters of chicks live long enough to fledge, but not more than half of those survive long enough to reproduce. The maximum recorded age is 27 years and 5 months for a Dutch bird.

The pintail feeds by dabbling and upending in shallow water for plant food mainly in the evening or at night, and therefore spends much of the day resting. Its long neck enables it to take food items from the bottom of water bodies up to 30 cm (12 in) deep, which are beyond the reach of other dabbling ducks like the Mallard.

The winter diet is mainly plant material including seeds and rhizomes of aquatic plants, but the pintail sometimes feeds on roots, grain and other seeds in fields, though less frequently than other Anas ducks. During the nesting season, this bird eats mainly invertebrate animals, including aquatic insects, molluscs and crustaceans.

Pintail nests and chicks are vulnerable to predation by mammals, such as foxes and badgers, and birds like gulls, crows and magpies. The adults can take flight to escape terrestrial predators, but nesting females in particular may be surprised by large carnivores such as bobcats. Large birds of prey, such as northern goshawks, will take ducks from the ground, and some falcons, including the gyrfalcon, have the speed and power to catch flying birds.

It is susceptible to a range of parasites including Cryptosporidium, Giardia, tapeworms, blood parasites and external feather lice, and is also affected by other avian diseases. It is often the dominant species in major mortality events from avian botulism and avian cholera, and can also contract avian influenza, the H5N1 strain of which is highly pathogenic and occasionally infects humans.

Pintails in North America at least have been badly affected by avian diseases, with the breeding population falling from more than 10 million in 1957 to 3.5 million by 1964. Although the species has recovered from that low point, the breeding population in 1999 was 30% below the long-term average, despite years of major efforts focused on restoring the species. In 1997, an estimated 1.5 million water birds, the majority being northern pintails, died from avian botulism during two outbreaks in Canada and Utah.

The northern pintail is a popular species for game shooting because of its speed, agility, and excellent eating qualities, and is hunted across its range. Although one of the world’s most numerous ducks, the combination of hunting with other factors has led to population declines, and local restrictions on hunting have been introduced at times to help conserve numbers.

This species’ preferred habitat of shallow water is naturally susceptible to problems such as drought or the encroachment of vegetation, but this duck’s habitat might be increasingly threatened by climate change. Populations are also affected by the conversion of wetlands and grassland to arable crops, depriving the duck of feeding and nesting areas. Spring planting means that many nests of this early breeding duck are destroyed by farming activities, and a Canadian study showed that more than half of the surveyed nests were destroyed by agricultural work such as ploughing and harrowing.

Hunting with lead shot, along with the use of lead sinkers in angling, has been identified as a major cause of lead poisoning in waterfowl, which often feed off the bottom of lakes and wetlands where the shot collects. A Spanish study showed that northern pintail and common pochard were the species with the highest levels of lead shot ingestion, higher than in northern countries of the western Palearctic flyway, where lead shot has been banned. In the United States, Canada, and many western European countries, all shot used for waterfowl must now be non-toxic, and therefore may not contain any lead.

On to my photos:

Although pintails are not rare in Michigan, getting close to one is a rarity because they are very wary of humans due to the hunting pressure that they endure during migration. In fact, pintails were one of the first species that I photographed for this project, but it has taken me almost 5 years to get a reasonably good photo of a male in full breeding plumage. These photos were shot in January of 2018 at the Muskegon County wastewater facility.

Northern pintail ducks


Northern pintail ducks in flight


Northern pintail ducks in flight


Male Northern pintail ducks in flight


Northern pintail ducks in flight


Northern pintail ducks


Northern pintail ducks


Northern pintail ducks


Northern pintail ducks


This is number 206 in my photo life list, only 144 to go!

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!



First real post of 2018

My last post was done in the middle of January, which is when I’m starting this post as well. I still haven’t been outside with a camera yet this year, and I may not make it this week either. I have a doctor’s appointment on my day off from work to make sure that the medicine that I’m taking for my psoriasis isn’t damaging my liver or other vital organs.

I’m more than a bit disappointed about not getting out this week, as it’s forecast to be the nicest day so far this year, with a temperature around freezing, and some sunshine for a change. Oh well, they’re be plenty of nice days this year when I can make it outside to shoot photos.

I think that this new job that I started last fall will actually give me more time for photography once I get used to the schedule. There have been days when even though I worked, I could have easily had the time to get out and shoot some photos from around home, or even have gone to Muskegon and back. But, it’s been so cold that I had no desire to freeze my fingers off for a few photos shot on grey, dreary days when there’s little hope of getting a good photo.

There’s been a lot for me to learn so far on this new job, mostly learning which postal employees know what they are talking about if I have a question. I could easily go on at length about all there is to learn, but I’m beginning to get the hang of it, and despite a few slip ups on my part, it’s going much better than during my first few weeks there. The pay is good, so good that I no longer have to work 10 to 12 hours a day to make ends meet, unlike at the last place that I worked.

I typically only work for 5 to 6 hours a couple of days each week, then a couple of longer days, in the 8 to 10 hour range, depending on the runs that I do. Since I earn $4 an hour more than at my last employer, I still make more money at the new job. Oh, and that $4 an hour is what I see in my paycheck. They also pay another $5 per hour that I use to pay my benefits and never see in my paycheck. My health insurance, dental insurance, and all other benefits come out of that $5 an hour that doesn’t show up in my paycheck, and some of that goes into a retirement savings account after my various insurances are paid for. That goes along with an IRA, and my employer has a profit-sharing program that also goes into my IRA as well. So, financially, I’m much better off at this job than my last.

Still, money is going to be tight until I get the hospital bill that I ran up last spring paid off. I have a rebate card from B&H Camera that I have to use before the end of April, or it will expire, and I’ll lose that rebate. I plan on purchasing a tripod collar and another quick release plate for the gimbal head so that I can mount my 70-200 mm lens on the gimbal head to use it to shoot videos if that’s the focal length required at the time that I shoot the video.

One thing that I’m learning about shooting video is that I don’t have to be zoomed in as tight on a subject for the subject to show up well in the video. Another thing that I’m learning is that I can’t hold the camera steady enough to produce a quality video no matter how short the lens that I use is. I know that most people use a dedicated head for videos, but I don’t want to spring for yet another tripod and head just to shoot videos. In my limited testing, the gimbal head does what I need it to do, steady the camera and lens, yet let me follow the action that I’m trying to shoot.

So far for the year, I have three photos saved that I shot testing ways to make the 400 mm lens focus closer than 11 feet by adding an extension tube behind it. I can get down to eight feet, which will work well for times when I can use it. I also have three short video clips saved as well, as I was trying to get my camera set-up correctly to shoot videos.

I know that I’m going to have to change one of the settings that I changed back to where it was, or it will mess me up as I’m trying to shoot photos while using live view focusing. In a round about way, that takes me to my next point.

I needed another ink refill for my printer, so I stopped at the local camera store to pick one up. While there, I couldn’t resist the chance to check out a Canon 5D Mk IV in person, rather than just reading about it online. While the 5D is laid out almost exactly as the 7D that I use is, I have reprogrammed the 7D to the point where things that I do automatically with the 7D took me a while to do on the 5D because of how I have customized the 7D. That’s okay, as I can customize the 5D to match the way that I have my 7D bodies set-up, still, that reminded me how much I have changed the 7D to shoot the subjects that I do the way that I do. That may not directly affect image quality, however, it does allow me to make the changes to the camera settings as quickly as I need to in order to shoot the photos that I do. And, that does result in better images because I can use the right settings most of the time, since it takes me so little time to make the changes.

On another related note, I finally have made it out to shoot a few photos, including a sunrise for a change.

Muskegon sunrise 1

One thing that has given me fits while trying to shoot a series of images to produce a HDR image as these are is that the 7D that I’ve begun using for landscapes canceled the auto-bracketing for exposure whenever I’d change anything, including refocusing the scene. There have been times when I almost switched back to the 60D body just for that reason, as once I set the 60D for exposure bracketing, it stayed set until I changed it. I went into the menu system of the 7D for another reason, and found a setting labeled AEB auto cancel, and it was enabled. I disabled it, and that put an end to me having to reset the bracketing all the time as I had been doing.

Muskegon sunrise 2

Most of the time I love how customizable the 7D is, but then there are times when some obscure menu setting drives me crazy trying to figure out why the camera doesn’t do what I want it to do.

It was a great sunrise, I could have used a fish-eye lens because the entire sky was colored by the rising sun. I used the 16-35 mm lens at 16 mm for the first one, the 100-400 mm lens set at 100 mm for the second.

Now then, Photomatix recently released a new version of their software to create HDR images, and I’m still learning to make the best use of it. I think that the first image is a little over the top, so I went back and tried it a second time with different Photomatix settings, and this is the result.

Muskegon sunrise 3

That version is much closer to what I was seeing as I shot the photos. I wanted to shoot more photos of the sunrise, but it came to an end rather quickly, almost as if some one had switched off the color all at once. I also wanted to move to another location for a better photo, and switch to my 10-18 mm lens to capture more of the sky, but the sunrise was over by then.

It turned out to be a very nice day, with plenty of sunshine and the temperature getting above freezing for a change. Not only was the weather nice, but I got my best photos to date of northern pintail ducks.

Northern pintail ducks in flight

I almost blew my chance at improving over photos like this one, shot on a bitterly cold, grey day in March of 2014.

Male northern pintail

I’ve been waiting to do a post on this species in the My Photo Life List project that I’ve been working on until I was able to shoot better photos of them than the one above.

Anyway, I was shooting photos of mallards in flight for practice more than any other reason…

Mallards in flight


Male mallard in flight

…because of the way that the light is reflected off from the snow left on the ground to light the underside of their wings.

While I was shooting the mallards, I spotted the pair of pintails much closer to me than I’ve ever gotten to that species before, but I had the bird in flight set-up in my hand. I even got the pintails in focus as they were resting, but like the idiot that I am, I never pressed the shutter button. Instead, I set the bird in flight set-up down, and grabbed the portrait set-up to get what I hoped would be excellent images of the pintails. You know what happened, they took off as I was making the switch, so I had to go back to the bird in flight set-up.

Northern pintail ducks in flight

They may not be brightly colored, but they are very elegant looking ducks, so I was happy that I got the photos that I did. Also, just as with the mallards, the light reflecting off from the snow lit the underside of their wings very well.

Knowing that the pintails would probably return to the same pond as where I found them, I went off in search of other subjects for a while, then I did go back to where I had first seen them. Just as I got there, a pair of male pintails were coming in for a landing.

Male Northern pintail ducks in flight

The pintails knew I was there, so they stayed in the far side of the pond, over twice as far away from me as they had been when I first spooked them. Still, I was able to shoot a few reasonably good photos of them, much better than any of the earlier ones that I had saved over the years.

Northern pintail ducks

You can see in that last image that the females are smaller than the males, and while the females may look like a female mallard, the dark bill of the pintail is one way of telling a female pintail from a female mallard, which have orange bills.

The other photos that I shot this day are only so-so, but at this time of the year, I have to take what I can get.

Juvenile bald eagle in flight


American crow in flight


American crow in flight


American crow in flight


Great blue heron resting

I’ve since made it out again, on a day when the light was horrible, despite the sun trying to burn through the clouds. It was so hazy that it interfered with the auto-focusing system of my usually reliable camera. Not only that, but I wasn’t able to get close to any wildlife at all, other than a snowy owl well before sunrise. Still, it was fun to watch the owl trying to pick off a duck now and then. I never saw it succeed in any of its attacks though, the ducks were too quick to spot the owl as it approached. I eventually lost sight of the owl as dark as it was at the time.

Right after sunrise, this Cooper’s hawk came flying past me though.

Cooper’s hawk in flight

It’s been a while since I’ve shot a photo of a Cooper’s hawk, otherwise I wouldn’t have included that one because of the noise in the image.

Here’s a photo to show how low and close to the snow that snowy owls fly when they’re moving to another perch to hunt from.

Snowy owl in flight

Maybe I’ll catch one coming at me one of these days, rather than flying past me as it glides just above the snow. But, because they fly so low, they’re hard to spot in the distance against a white background.

On the other hand, I spotted these two bald eagles, one adult and one juvenile, soaring towards me as I looked for things to photograph. As they approached me, they took turns flying at one another.

Bald eagles in flight

Since neither of them was carrying food, I don’t know why they would make passes at each other. I don’t know if it’s part of the bonding process between an adult and its young, a game that eagles play, or exactly what the reason is, but it’s something that I see often.

Bald eagles in flight

The adult broke off and headed straight towards me, but I couldn’t get a good photo of it as it passed over my head due to the haze in the air at the time.

The juvenile hung back a little, and when it flew over me, it took a path that put blue sky behind it, so I was able to shoot this one before it got directly over me.

Juvenile bald eagle in flight

Birds in flight have always fascinated me, as they have many people, but the more that I attempt to photograph them, the more fascinated I have become. I should expand that, it isn’t just because I’m trying to photograph birds in flight, but it’s that I’m learning to identify the species of bird flying by just the way that it flies, long before I can see the colors of the bird that I’m seeing at the time.

At the same time that I shot the two male pintails returning to the pond, there were hundreds of mallards also returning to land there at the same time. Yet I had no trouble at all picking the pintails out of the flock of mallards because of the shape and motion of their wings. It’s hard to describe the differences, even though it was easy enough to see as I scanned the incoming flock of ducks as they returned to the pond. For one thing, the pintails flap their wings even faster than the mallards do, and the arc that their wings move in is different as well.

It seems that each species of bird flies slightly different from other similar sized birds, even if they are in the same family of birds, such as ducks. It’s easy enough to tell the difference between a long-winged duck such as a mallard, and a species of duck with much shorter, broader wings, such as a common goldeneye for example.

Male common goldeneye in flight

However, mallards and pintails are very close in size, yet their flight is different enough to allow me to identify which species a duck in flight is, just by the motion of its wings.

I think that I’m paying more attention to the different ways that birds fly because I’m spending much more time near open bodies of water, and at the Muskegon County wastewater facility, where there are vast tracts of open land devoid of trees. For most of my life, I spent most of my time hiking in wooded areas, where I’d see small songbirds flitting from one tree branch to another. Even then I could tell that there were differences in the way that the various species of birds that I saw flew, but most of the time, I couldn’t see birds in the distance because of the trees.

When I’m along the shore of Lake Michigan, or at the wastewater facility, it’s easy to spot a larger bird flying over a quarter of a mile away, and then I’d like to be able to identify it in order to decide if it’s a species of bird worth trying to get closer to or not. That’s where being able to identify the species just by the way that it flaps its wings comes into play. Is the bird I’m seeing a gull, or something else, an eagle, or a turkey vulture, a crow or a falcon? It can be hard to tell by size alone, as across the distances that I can see birds in open areas, it’s more difficult to judge the size of a bird and how far away from me it really is when the bird is in the open sky with nothing nearby to help me judge the bird’s size and distance from me.

As an example, I spotted a hawk a good distance away from me on my lasting outing, but I wasn’t sure of which species of hawk that it was until I had watched it in flight. It was a rough-legged hawk…

Rough-legged hawk in flight

…which I could tell by the way that it hovered over an area pausing to look the area over when it thought that there may be food below.

Rough-legged hawk in flight

However, as much as I could attempt to explain the differences in how similarly sized birds fly, and how you can use that to identify the bird in question, is beyond my writing ability. Even in my still photos, it’s impossible to see the differences, even if I shoot two different birds at one time in the frame together.

American crow harassing a red-tailed hawk in flight


American crow harassing a red-tailed hawk in flight


American crow harassing a red-tailed hawk in flight

To truly show the differences in how those two birds move their wings in flight I’d have to shoot videos, and I’m not good enough at shooting video yet, and I probably will never become good enough in the future. I’m afraid that ability to show what I’m trying to explain would only come if I invested in quality video recording gear rather than relying on the video capabilities of my DSLRs.

I have neither the money to afford expensive video gear, nor the time to learn how to make the best use of it, and I never will bless I were to hit the lottery. So, I encourage you to watch various species of birds in flight so that you may learn of what I’m talking about.

Anyway, I’ve had trouble finding many birds to photograph the last three times that I’ve been out with the camera this year so far. So, I shot a few photos of lichens to pass the time, and to keep my skill at macro photography ready for the spring when the flowers begin to bloom.

Unidentified lichen


Unidentified lichen

The flowers of spring can’t get here soon enough for me, it’s been a long, cold, snowy winter so far, with no hint of that changing in the weather forecasts I’ve seen. I have the day off from work, but I’m not going to bother to go out to shoot any photos, as there’s still more snow about to begin falling here before daylight. The past two weeks have been miserable as far as the cold and snow, although we may get a day or two of around average winter days this coming week. Just getting back to average will seem like a heat wave. And, a day or two without any new snow falling will be a nice change as well.

After I arrived home from work yesterday, I watched the noon forecast, hoping for nicer weather, and that’s what the forecaster said at the time, that there may even be a little sunshine for today. But, when I woke up and checked the forecast at 11 PM, it had changed to include yet more snow for the day. A check of the radar confirmed that there is indeed another band of snow headed towards the area and it will arrive just before dawn, bah humbug!

So, I’m going to finish this post with a pair of flower photos from last fall…



Unidentified sunflower

I have no idea when I’ll be able to do another of my regular posts like this one, so I’ll be filling in the gaps with more posts on the My Photo Life List project until we get some better weather around here, sorry.

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!


Great Black-backed gull

Note: this post, while published, is a work in progress, as are all posts in this series, My Photo Life List. My goal is to photograph every species of bird that is seen on a regular basis here in Michigan, working from a list compiled by the Michigan chapter of the Audubon Society. This will be a lifelong project, that I began in January of 2013, and as I shoot better photos of this, or any other species, I will update the post for that species with better photos when I can. While this series is not intended to be a field guide per se, my minimum standard for the photos in this series is that one has to be able to make a positive identification of the species in my photos. The information posted here is from either my observations or the Wikipedia, the online free encyclopedia, however, I have personally shot all the photos appearing in this series.

Great black-backed gull (Larus marinus)

The great black-backed gull (Larus marinus), mistakenly called greater black-backed gull by some, is the largest member of the gull family. It breeds on the European and North American coasts and islands of the North Atlantic and is fairly sedentary, though some move farther south or inland to large lakes or reservoirs. The adult great black-backed gull has a white head, neck and underparts, dark grey wings and back, pink legs and yellow bill.

This is the largest gull in the world, noticeably outsizing a herring gull (Larus argentatus). Only a few other gulls, including Pallas’s gull (Ichthyaetus ichthyaetus) and glaucous gull (Larus hyperboreus), come close to matching this species’ size. It is 64–79 cm (25–31 in) long with a 1.5–1.7 m (4 ft 11 in–5 ft 7 in) wingspan and a body weight of 0.75–2.3 kg (1.7–5.1 lb). In a sample of 2009 adults from the North Atlantic, males were found to average 1,830 g (4.03 lb) and females were found to average 1,488 g (3.280 lb). Some adult gulls with access to fisheries in the North Sea can weigh up to roughly 2.5 kg (5.5 lb) and averaged 1.96 kg (4.3 lb). An exceptionally large glaucous gull was found to outweigh any known great black-backed gull, although usually that species is slightly smaller. The great black-backed gull is bulky and imposing in appearance with a large, powerful bill. The standard measurements are: the bill is 5.4 to 7.25 cm (2.13 to 2.85 in), the wing chord is 44.5 to 53 cm (17.5 to 20.9 in) and the tarsus is 6.6 to 8.8 cm (2.6 to 3.5 in).

The adult great black-backed gull is fairly distinctive, as no other very large gull with blackish coloration on its upper-wings generally occurs in the North Atlantic. In other white-headed North Atlantic gulls, the mantle is generally a lighter gray color and, in some species, it is a light powdery color or even pinkish. It is grayish-black on the wings and back, with conspicuous, contrasting white “mirrors” at the wing tips. The legs are pinkish, and the bill is yellow or yellow-pink with some orange or red near tip of lower bill. The adult lesser black-backed gull (L. fuscus) is distinctly smaller, typically weighing about half as much as a great black-back. The lesser black-back has yellowish legs and a mantle that can range from slate-gray to brownish-colored but it is never as dark as the larger species.

Juvenile birds of under a year old have scaly, checkered black-brown upper parts, the head and underparts streaked with gray brown, and a neat wing pattern. The face and nape are paler and the wing flight feathers are blackish-brown. The juvenile’s tail is white with zigzag bars and spots at base and a broken blackish band near the tip. The bill of the juvenile is brownish-black with white tip and the legs dark bluish-gray with some pink tones. As the young gull ages, the gray-brown coloration gradually fades to more contrasting plumage and the bill darkens to black before growing paler. By the third year, the young gulls resemble a streakier, dirtier-looking version of the adult. They take at least four years to reach maturity, development in this species being somewhat slower than that of other large gulls. The call is a deep “laughing” cry, kaa-ga-ga, with the first note sometimes drawn out in an almost bovid-like sound. The voice is distinctly deeper than most other gull species.

This species can be found breeding in coastal areas from the extreme northwest portion of Russia, through much of coastal Scandinavia, on the Baltic Sea coasts, to the coasts of northwestern France, the United Kingdom and Ireland. Across the northern portion of the Atlantic, this gull is distributed in Iceland and southern Greenland and on the Atlantic coasts of Canada and the United States. Though formerly mainly just a non-breeding visitor south of Canada in North America, the species has spread to include several colonies in the New England states and now breeds as far south as North Carolina. Individuals breeding in harsher environments will migrate south, wintering on northern coasts of Europe from the Baltic Sea to southern Portugal, and regularly down to coastal Florida in North America.During the winter in the Baltic Sea, the bird usually stays close to the ice boundary. North of the Åland islands, the sea often freezes all the way from Sweden to Finland, and then the bird migrates to open waters. Exceptionally, the species can range as far south as the Caribbean and off the coast of northern South America.

The great black-backed gull is found in a variety of coastal habitats, including rocky and sandy coasts and estuaries, as well as inland wetland habitats, such as lakes, ponds, rivers, wet fields and moorland. They are generally found within striking distance of large bodies of water while ranging inland. Today, it is a common fixture at refuse dumps both along coasts and relatively far inland. The species also makes extensive use of dredge spoils, which, in the state of New Jersey, comprise their most prevalent nesting sites. It generally breeds in areas free of or largely inaccessible to terrestrial predators, such as vegetated islands, sand dunes, flat-topped stacks, building roofs and sometimes amongst bushes on salt marsh islands. During the winter, the great black-backed gull often travels far out to sea to feed.

Like most gulls, great black-backed gulls are opportunistic feeders, apex predators, and are very curious. They will investigate any small organism they encounter and will readily eat almost anything that they can swallow. They get much of their dietary energy from scavenging, with refuse, most provided directly by humans, locally comprising more than half of their diet. The proliferation of garbage or refuse dumps has become a major attractant to this and all other non-specialized gull species in its range. However, apparently, in attempt to observe how much time they spend foraging at refuse dumps in Massachusetts, great black-backed gulls were only observed actively foraging 19% of their time there, eating less garbage than other common gulls, and spent most of their time roosting or loafing.

Like most gulls, they also capture fish with some regularity and will readily capture any fish smaller than itself found close to the surface of the water. Whether caught or eaten after death or injury from other sources, stomach contents of great black-backed gulls usually show fish to be the primary food. On Sable Island in Nova Scotia, 25% of the stomach contents were comprised by fish but 96% of the regurgitations given to young was made up fish. Similarly, on Great Island in Newfoundland, 25% of the stomach contents were fish but 68% of regurgitants were fish. The most regularly reported fish eaten in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland were capelin (Mallotus villosus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morrhua), Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod), Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus). Other prey often includes various squid, Jonah crabs (Cancer borealis), rock crabs (Cancer irroratus), sea urchins, green crabs (Carcinus maenas), starfish (Asterias forbesi and Asterias rubens) and other echinoderms, crustaceans and mollusks when they come across the opportunity. From observations in northern New England, 23% of observed prey was echinoderms and 63% was crustaceans.

Unlike most other Larus gulls, they are highly predatory and frequently hunt and kill any prey smaller than themselves, behaving more like a raptor than a typical larid gull. Lacking the razor-sharp talons and curved, tearing beak of a raptor, the great black-backed gull relies on aggression, physical strength and endurance when hunting. When attacking other animals, they usually attack seabird eggs, nestlings or fledgings at the nest, perhaps most numerously terns, but also including smaller gull species as well as eiders, gannets and various alcids. In Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, 10% of the stomach contents of great black-backed gulls was made up of birds, while a further 17% of stomach contents was made up of tern eggs alone. Adult or fledged juveniles of various bird species have also been predaceously attacked. Some fully-fledged or adult birds observed to be hunted in flight or on the ground by great black-backed gulls have included Anas ducks, ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis), buffleheads (Bucephala albeola), Manx shearwaters (Puffinus puffinus), pied-billed grebes (Podilymbus podiceps), common moorhens (Gallinula chloropus), terns, Atlantic puffins(Fratercula arctica), coots (Fulica ssp.), hen harriers (Circus cyaneus), glossy ibises (Plegadis falcinellus) and even rock pigeons (Columba livia). When attacking other flying birds, the great black-backed gulls often pursue them on the wing and attack them by jabbing with their bill, hoping to bring down the other bird either by creating an open wound or simply via exhaustion. They will also catch flying passerines, which they typically target while the small birds are exhausted from migration and swallow them immediately. Great black-backed gull also feed on land animals, including rats (Rattus ssp.) at garbage dumps and even sickly lambs.

Most foods are swallowed whole, including most fish and even other gulls. When foods are too large to be swallowed at once, they will sometimes be shaken in the bill until they fall apart into pieces. Like some other gulls, when capturing molluscs or other hard-surfaced foods such as eggs, they will fly into the air with it and drop it on rocks or hard earth to crack it open. Alternate foods, including berries and insects, are eaten when available. They will readily exploit easy food sources, including chum lines made by boats at sea. They are skilled kleptoparasites who will readily pirate fish and other prey captured by other birds and dominate over other gulls when they encounter them. At tern colonies in coastal Maine, American herring gulls (L. smithsonianus) occasionally also attack nestling and fledging terns but in a great majority of cases were immediately pirated of their catch by great black-backs. In one observation, an adult great black-back was seen to rob a female peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) of a freshly caught gadwall (Anas strepera). In another case, a third-year great black-back was observed fighting an adult female northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) off its kill, although the goshawk attempted to strike the gull before leaving. Due to their method of using intimidation while encountering other water and raptorial birds, the species has been referred to as a “merciless tyrant”. Naturally, these gulls are attracted to the surface activity of large marine animals, from Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) to humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), to capture fish driven to the surface by such creatures.

This species breeds singly or in small colonies, sometimes in the middle of a Larus argentatus colony. Young adult pair formation occurs in March or April. The following spring the same birds usually form a pair again, meeting at the previous year’s nest. If one of the birds doesn’t appear, the other bird begins looking for a new mate. Usually a single bird does not breed in that season.

They make a lined nest on the ground often on top of a rocky stack, fallen log or other obstructing object which can protect the eggs from the elements. Usually, several nest scrapes are made before the one deemed best by the parents is selected and then lined with grass, seaweed or moss or objects such as rope or plastic. When nesting on roofs in urban environments, previous year’s nests are often reused over and over again. The female lays usually three eggs sometime between late April and late June. When only two eggs are found in a nest, the reason is almost always that one egg, for one reason or another, has been destroyed. It takes around one week for the female to produce the three eggs, and the incubation doesn’t begin until all three eggs are laid. Hence all three chicks are hatched the same day. The birds are usually successful in bringing up all the three chicks.

The eggs are greenish-brown with dark speckles and blotches. Both parents participate in the incubation stage, which lasts for approximately 28 days. During this time, the birds attempt to avoid being noticed and stay silent. The breeding pair are devoted parents who both take shifts brooding the young, defending the nest and gathering food. Young great black-backed gulls leave the nest area at 50 days of age and may remain with their parents for an overall period of around six months, though most fledglings choose to congregate with other immature gulls in the search for food by fall. These gulls reach breeding maturity when they obtain adult plumage at four years, though may not successfully breed until they are six years old.

Mortality typically occurs in the early stages of life, when harsh weather conditions (including flooding) and starvation can threaten them, as well as predators. Chicks and eggs are preyed on by crows (Corvus ssp.), cats (Felis catus), other gulls, raccoons (Procyon lotor) and rats (Rattus ssp.). The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), white-tailed eagle (H. albicilla) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) are the only birds known to habitually predate healthy, fully grown great black-backed gulls. A great skua (Stercorarius skua) was filmed in Scotland unsuccessfully attempting to kill a second or third year great black-backed gull. On the other hand, the slightly smaller pomarine jaeger (S. pomarinus) has been observed to have been predated by great black-backed gulls. In Norway, great black-backed gulls have been reported to fall prey to Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo). Killer whales (Orcinus orca) and sharks also reportedly prey upon adult and juvenile birds at sea. In some biomes, where large eagles are absent the great black-backed gull may be considered the apex predator.

On to my photos:

These photos were shot at Grand Haven, Michigan State Park in December of 2014.

Great Black-backed gull


Great Black-backed gull, juvenile and adult


Great Black-backed gull, adult


Great Black-backed gull in flight


Great Black-backed gull in flight


Great Black-backed gull


Great Black-backed gull with herring gulls


Great Black-backed gull with herring gulls


Great Black-backed gull

This is number 205 in my photo life list, only 145 to go!

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!



Looking forward to 2018

In my last post I wrote that I was beginning to plan and to set goals for myself in the coming year. But, before I move on to those topics, I thought that a look back at the year 2017 was in order.

Going back through my Lightroom catalog month by month, I selected one image for each month. The image that I chose isn’t necessarily the best image that I shot that particular month, but I tried to include some variety in the subjects, as well as overall interest rather than the image that was technically the best of the month. When making the selections, it was difficult to choose just one image for the month. There were usually five or six images in the running to represent each month, and making the choices that I did often came down to my personal favorites, rather than if the image was tack sharp, or how well it represented the month for which it was chosen.

But first, here’s yet another photo of a snowy owl from my last excursion out. The remarkable thing about this day is that there was actually some sunshine.

Snowy owl

In fact, blue skies are such a rarity this time of year, that I shot this very poor landscape image just to help me remember what blue sky looks like.

Blue skies for a change

Okay then, let’s go back to last January, to begin the year in review. Since this was the year that I finally became somewhat proficient shooting birds in flight well, I’m going to start the year with this merlin in flight.

Merlin in flight

In February, I shot this common merganser taking off.

Common merganser

You may begin to see a pattern here, as March is also represented by a bird in flight, a male northern harrier.

Male northern harrier in flight

So, for April, I made sure that the subject of the image wasn’t moving for a change.

Green heron showing its crown

Once spring arrived, my choices became even harder, because there weren’t only bird photos to choose from, but also insects and flowers. So, I decided to combine the two for May.

Green bee on a milkweed flower

For June, I went back to birds, because it’s rare for me to get as close to a hooded merganser as I did this pair.

Hooded mergansers

But for July, I returned to a flower.

Purple coneflower

I had to choose a bird for August, since in many ways, this is the best image of a bald eagle that I’ve ever shot.

Bald eagle

For September, I chose one of the first asters of fall.


For October, I selected this one, not quite a landscape photo, not quite a bird photo.

Misty morning

That brings us to the final image of the year in review, this bald eagle in flight.

Bald eagle in flight

I know, too many birds, and not enough other subjects. That’s one thing that I hope to remedy in 2018.

Thinking back to when I began my blog, I think that I was a better story-teller back then. However, I was a poor photographer, so the photos that I shot to help tell the stories didn’t show the story that I was trying to tell very well. So, I set out to make myself a better photographer, and I believe that I have succeeded, at the cost of not telling many stories as I used to.

One thing that I hope to do in the coming year is to go back to story telling, even if the photos that I shoot to go with the story aren’t that good.

Here’s an example of what I mean. There are few birds in flight that are as graceful as a snowy owl, and I can’t think of another species of bird that makes flight look as effortless as snowy owls do. With just a few beats of their wings, they are airborne and moving at a pretty good clip, spending most of the their time in flight gliding just above the snow…

Snowy owl in flight

…with just an occasional flap of their wings to maintain their momentum.

Snowy owl in flight

Even then, they stay low to the ground most of the time.

However, all their gracefulness comes to an end when it’s time for them to land. I’ve been lucky to see a number of them land, either while they were hunting, or they were escaping from people trying to get too close to the owls. I would say that a snowy owl landing is more of a controlled crash than a landing. I continued to track the owl in the photos above, but I didn’t shoot any more photos until I saw it set its wings for a landing…

Snowy owl landing

…the owl was really too far away, but I couldn’t take my finger off from the shutter button…

Snowy owl landing

…it was looking good at that point, until the owl’s feet touched the snow…

Snowy owl landing

…the owl was sliding across the snow, you’d think that a bird that spent most of its time in the Arctic would know that snow and ice are slippery…

Snowy owl sliding across the snow

…but it ended up in a heap as it slid across the snow…

Snowy owl landing

…until its talons were able to grab on to something in the snow, at which time the owl popped up as if to say “I meant to do that”.

Snowy owl landing

Of course I wish that I had been much closer to the owl as it crashed, but I don’t always get what I want.

That holds true for the weather so far this winter, it’s been brutal here in Michigan, and I know that it’s been even worse in other parts of the U.S. I haven’t been outside with a camera since before Christmas, and that’s not likely to change in the future, at least as far as I can tell by the weather forecasts.

The cold temperatures and the nearly non-stop snow falling has made working as a truck driver that much more difficult. The company that I work for now has been leaving the trucks running 24 hours a day in some instances, because they can’t get the trucks started agin if they sit for very long as cold as it’s been. I’ve also hooked to a couple of trailers that the brakes were frozen on, which means sliding under the trailer to hammer or pry the brakes loose so that the trailer will move. It’s been no fun at all the past three weeks a I write this, with at least another week to go before there’s any sort of warm-up. Even then, we’ll be lucky if it gets above the freezing mark, but I’m sure it will feel like a heat wave as cold as it’s been.

So, I’ve had some time on my hands, but not much to do. I was really looking forward to 2018, but making plans has been harder than I thought, since it’s so miserable outside so far this year.

I also remember that I had made big plans for 2017, none of which came to fruition. Ending up in the hospital for nearly a week last April derailed most of my plans for the spring and beyond. I’m still paying off the bill from that episode, but I’m making good progress on it. However, it puts a crimp on making plans that require spending very much money for the near future.

With some time on my hands due to the cold, I’ve been doing what I did the past few winters, watching how-to videos online and researching possible new camera gear. As far as camera gear, it will be a year or more, but all that I really need is a full-frame camera body and the Canon 24-105 mm lens. With a Canon 5D IV body, the lens that I want, and what I already have, I can get by carrying just two cameras as I do now, and two lenses, rather than the five lenses that I try to carry now. The reasons for the full-frame body are reduced noise at higher ISO settings, and wider field of view when shooting landscapes, as I’ve said before.

Many of the how-to videos that I’ve been watching were on how to edit photos, more so than videos on how to shoot better photos in the first place. Not to brag, but as far as sharpness and exposure, I do all right when it comes to shooting the photos that I do.

I will say this about editing images, there are a lot of people who put hours of work into editing the photos that they shoot. I’ll never get to that point, I don’t have the patience to sit in front of my computer for hours working on getting the perfectly edited version of an image that I’ve shot. I’m not one to lighten the eye of a bird by using the brush tool in Lightroom, or do all of the other painstaking editing that some people do for what I would say are minor improvements in the final image. But, I would like to get better at using Lightroom, so I suffer through the videos anyway.

Between watching those videos, and time to go through my Lightroom catalog, I have done some weeding out of photos that will never make the grade for one reason or another. I have thousands of images on my computer that no one will ever see, but I can’t bring myself to delete them despite that. They are memories for me to look back on during cold winters like this one.

So, with all of that in mind, my goals for this year are quite humble when compared to the plans that I’ve made in the past.

One is to use my tripod and the gimbal head that I purchased last year more often. I still shoot handheld most of the time, when I know that using the tripod would result in even better images. I do use the tripod for 95% of the landscape images that I shoot, so there’s no reason other than laziness not to use the tripod more often for other subjects. If I were to use the tripod more often for birds, I could go lower with the ISO settings to gain resolution in my images, since I could lower the shutter speed and not worry about camera movement. It only takes me a minute or two to set the tripod up, so there’s no excuse not to use it.

That goes with my second goal for the new year, shooting more video and getting better at it. That’s going to require that I use the tripod more often so that my videos are steadier and not so shaky as they have been. I really want to capture the courtship displays of some species of ducks, especially buffleheads and mergansers, as those displays would bring a smile to any one that watched them. I wanted to do that last year, but it was around the time in the spring when I ended up in the hospital, so I missed the courtship displays of the waterfowl completely.

I’m also planning on going back to many of the places that I haven’t been visiting as often, or not at all, that I used to go. I’ve gotten stuck in the rut of going to just a couple of places in the Muskegon area, hoping to add species of birds to the My Photo Life List project that I began several years ago. Also, some of that was due to health issues last year, as it took me most of the summer to fully recover my health to the point where I could cover longer distances as I used to walk. In fact, I’m still not 100%, but that’s mostly because I took it too easy last summer, when I should have pushed myself harder.

I’m not going to worry about posting to any schedule in the coming year, I’ll do a post when I get enough photos to do a good post, rather than trying to post once or twice a week, every week as I have been doing up until this winter. It helps that this winter has been so cold and snowy as to keep me inside most of the time, so I don’t have any new photos to share.

Well, almost another full week has gone by since the last time I worked on this post, and even though I have the day off from work, I won’t be venturing out to shoot any photos today. Even though we may set a record high temperature for the day, rather than a record low as we have been lately. That’s because there’s a dense fog advisory issued by the weather service, and it’s raining, not snowing for a change.

I also have too many other things that I have to do today, some banking to take care of, and I must have blood tests done ahead of a doctor’s appointment next week, and far enough in advance so that the results are available for the doctor to review them.

And, since I’ve been working nights, I’m normally going to bed shortly after sunrise on most days. That’s the pits for right now, but once spring and summer get here, that schedule could work out well for me. As it is now, it’s not light enough for photography until nearly 9 AM on most days in the winter here. But, I prefer to be on the location where I’m planning on going by 4 AM in the spring and summer months, because sunrise is so much earlier then. If I keep the same schedule then, it will work out very well for me. I’ll be able to sleep in on my days of from work, and still arrive at my destination as the sun rises.

Until then, I’m not sure how many of these regular posts I’ll be doing, but that will give me time to get caught up with the posts that I have to do towards the My Photo Life List project that I’ve been working on. I just finished another draft of a post towards the project, and the photos that I had of the species of bird for that post were just over three years old. They were shot when I was still using the Canon 60D camera and Sigma 150-500 mm lens, and before I had begun shooting in RAW or using Lightroom to edit my photos.

As I’ve done in the past, if I shoot better photos of the same species, I can go back and edit the post later to include the better quality photos.

Oh, and speaking of Lightroom, I’ve just read that Adobe has ended support of the standalone version of Lightroom that I’ve been using. I think that I can get by using the version that I have now for another year or two, but if I want to upgrade, I’ll have to sign up for the monthly fee version of Lightroom, that also includes Photoshop as well. I’m not happy about that, but what can one do, I’m sure that I’m not the only one that’s sorry to see the standalone version of Lightroom go away.

It’s now the middle of January, and I still haven’t been out with a camera since Christmas. We did have a short warm-up, but that brought rain and fog to the area, and my work schedule prevented me from getting out even in the low light. So, I’m going to finish this post with one more snowy owl photo…

Snowy owl

…this red-shouldered hawk seen on my way to Muskegon the last time I visited…

Red-shouldered hawk

…along with another leftover from last summer.

Great crested flycatcher

The weather people are forecasting another week in the deep freeze for us here, but after that, it should begin to warm up to close to average temperatures here for at least a week or two. That means high temperatures around freezing, but it will seem like a heat wave around here.

I put some of the free time that I had this morning to use by figuring out how to get the weight of my cameras with a battery grip and the long lenses that I have to balance better on the gimbal head of the tripod. The set-up I used before worked, but it left all the weight on just the quick release plate, with the foot of the tripod mount of the lens forward of the support base of the gimbal head. By reversing the tripod collars on the lenses, I was able to get the weight of the set-up above the support base of the gimbal head, therefore I don’t have to worry about one of the quick release plates breaking, sending my camera and lens crashing to the ground. I also learned a few other little tricks that may or may not come in handy, I’ll be able to tell for sure when I’m able to get out into the real world to test them.

At this time, I don’t know what else to say. I’m ready for spring to arrive, but that’s still well over a month away. I do plan on getting out before that, how often will depend on the weather, my work schedule, and a few other things. I’m not going to post something just to do a post on a set schedule, I’ll wait until I have photos or videos worth posting. As I said earlier, I’ll use the time to get caught up on the My Photo Life List project, even though I know those posts bore many readers.

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!


Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus

Note: this post, while published, is a work in progress, as are all posts in this series, My Photo Life List. My goal is to photograph every species of bird that is seen on a regular basis here in Michigan, working from a list compiled by the Michigan chapter of the Audubon Society. This will be a lifelong project, that I began in January of 2013, and as I shoot better photos of this, or any other species, I will update the post for that species with better photos when I can. While this series is not intended to be a field guide per se, my minimum standard for the photos in this series is that one has to be able to make a positive identification of the species in my photos. The information posted here is from either my observations or the Wikipedia, the online free encyclopedia, however, I have personally shot all the photos appearing in this series.

Short-eared Owl, Asio flammeus

The short-eared owl is a species of typical owl (family Strigidae). Owls belonging to genus Asio are known as the eared owls, as they have tufts of feathers resembling mammalian ears. These “ear” tufts may or may not be visible. Asio flammeus will display its tufts when in a defensive pose, although its very short tufts are usually not visible. The short-eared owl is found in open country and grasslands.

The short-eared owl is a medium-sized owl measuring 34–43 cm (13–17 in) in length and weighing 206–475 g (7.3–16.8 oz). It has large eyes, a big head, a short neck, and broad wings. Its bill is short, strong, hooked and black. Its plumage is mottled tawny to brown with a barred tail and wings. The upper breast is significantly streaked. Its flight is characteristically floppy due to its irregular wingbeats. The short-eared owl may also be described as “moth or bat-like” in flight. Wingspans range from 85 to 110 cm (33 to 43 in). Females are slightly larger than males. The yellow-orange eyes of A. flammeus are exaggerated by black rings encircling each eye, giving the appearance of them wearing mascara, and large, whitish disks of plumage surrounding the eyes like a mask.

Over much of its range, short-eared owls occurs with the similar-looking long-eared owl. At rest, the ear-tufts of long-eared owl serve to easily distinguish the two (although long-eared owl can sometimes hold its ear-tufts flat). The iris-colour differs: yellow in short-eared, and orange in long-eared, and the black surrounding the eyes is vertical on long-eared, and horizontal on short-eared. Overall the short-eared tends to be a paler, sandier bird than the long-eared. There are a number of other ways in which the two species the differ which are best seen when they are flying: a) short-eared often has a broad white band along the rear edge of the wing, which is not shown by long-eared; b) on the upperwing, short-eared owls’ primary-patches are usually paler and more obvious; c) the band on the upper side of short-eared owl’s tail are usually bolder than those of long-eared; d) short-eared’s innermost secondaries are often dark-marked, contrasting with the rest of the underwing; e) the long-eared owl has streaking throughout its underparts whereas on short-eared the streaking ends at the breast; f) the dark markings on the underside of the tips of the longest primaries are bolder on short-eared owl; g) the upperparts are coarsely blotched, whereas on long-eared they are more finely marked. The short-eared owl also differs structurally from the long-eared, having longer, slimmer wings: the long-eared owl has wings shaped more like those of a tawny owl. The long-eared owl generally has different habitat preferences from the short-eared, most often being found concealed in areas with dense wooded thickets. The short-eared owl is often most regularly seen flying about in early morning or late day as it hunts over open habitats.

The short-eared owl occurs on all continents except Antarctica and Australia; thus it has one of the most widespread distributions of any bird. A. flammeus breeds in Europe, Asia, North and South America, the Caribbean, Hawaii and the Galápagos Islands. It is partially migratory, moving south in winter from the northern parts of its range. The short-eared owl is known to relocate to areas of higher rodent populations. It will also wander nomadically in search of better food supplies during years when vole populations are low.

Sexual maturity is attained at one year. Breeding season in the northern hemisphere lasts from March to June, peaking in April. During this time these owls may gather in flocks. During breeding season, the males make great spectacles of themselves in flight to attract females. The male swoops down over the nest flapping its wings in a courtship display. These owls are generally monogamous.

The short-eared owl nests on the ground in prairie, tundra, savanna, or meadow habitats. Nests are concealed by low vegetation, and may be lightly lined by weeds, grass, or feathers. Approximately 4 to 7 white eggs are found in a typical clutch, but clutch size can reach up to a dozen eggs in years when voles are abundant. There is one brood per year. The eggs are incubated mostly by the female for 21–37 days. Offspring fledge at a little over four weeks. This owl is known to lure predators away from its nest by appearing to have a crippled wing.

Hunting occurs mostly at night, but this owl is known to be diurnal and crepuscular as well. Its daylight hunting seems to coincide with the high-activity periods of voles, its preferred prey. It tends to fly only feet above the ground in open fields and grasslands until swooping down upon its prey feet-first. Several owls may hunt over the same open area. Its food consists mainly of rodents, especially voles, but it will eat other small mammals such as mice, ground squirrels, shrews, rats, bats, muskrats and moles. It will also occasionally predate smaller birds, especially when near sea-coasts and adjacent wetlands at which time they attack shorebirds, terns and small gulls and seabirds with semi-regularity. Avian prey is more infrequently preyed on inland and centers on passerines such as larks, icterids, starlings, tyrant flycatchers and pipits. Insects supplement the diet and short-eared owls may prey on roaches, grasshoppers, beetles, katydids and caterpillars. Competition can be fierce in North America with the northern harrier, with which the owl shares similar habitat and prey preferences. Both species will readily harass the other when prey is caught.

Because of the high pH in the stomach of owls they have a reduced ability to digest bone and other hard parts, they eject pellets containing the remains of their prey.


On to my photos:

These photos were shot at the Muskegon County wastewater facility in the fall of 2017.

Short-eared owl in flight


Short-eared owl in flight


Short-eared owl in flight


Short-eared owl in flight


This is number 204 in my photo life list, only 146 to go!

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!



Looking for something different

Honestly, I did try to find other species of birds, or other subjects for that matter, before I began this post. However, given the type of day that it was when I had the chance to get out with the camera, and the time of year that it is, I wound up with more eagle and snowy owl photos, with a few northern shovelers thrown in also.

Male northern shoveler

He’s getting close to being in full breeding plumage, although most of the male shovelers are running behind him.

Male northern shoveler

I didn’t want to shoot the second one in the light that I had at the time, but I had to when the shoveler opened its mouth. The light was too harsh and I wasn’t close enough to show the structure of the inside of the shoveler’s mouth so that every one could see how they filter food out of the water. I love the first photo though, it shows how colorful the males are, other than you can’t see its blue and green wing patches as you can when I photograph them in flight.

It could be that the days when one of my posts contains many different species of birds is over. I spent quite a long period of time watching the shovelers. I’d pick out one of the males that looked like it would be a good subject for a photo, then track it the viewfinder, waiting and hoping for a good photo. That’s how I got the one of the shoveler with his mouth open, I was tracking him, but not shooting any photos until I saw him open his mouth. In some ways, all the time that I spent there watching the shovelers seems wasted, since I shot very few photos during that time. But, I did learn more about their behavior and I enjoyed the time that I spent watching them.

Later in the day, I spotted an eagle in the distance that appeared to be hunting. I was headed in that direction to begin with, so I kept an eye on the eagle as I approached the area where it was hunting. Then, the eagle disappeared from view, I didn’t know it had made a kill or if it had just flown out of sight while I was looking for other subjects to photograph as I made my way towards where the eagle had been soaring back and forth across a small area of one of the farm fields there at the wastewater facility.

When I got close to where I had seen the eagle in flight, I found it perched in a tree, still on the look-out for lunch. It’s relatively easy to tell when a raptor is just resting versus seriously looking for a meal. When they are resting, they may be looking around, but they do it slowly, only turning their heads now and then. When they are looking for a meal, their heads never stop moving, and not only do they turn their heads, but they bob their heads up and down, and from side to side almost constantly.

Getting close to the eagle was no problem…

Adult bald eagle

…but getting a clear view of it was. I tried to find an opening in the branches to shoot through, but this was the best that I could do.

Adult bald eagle

Making getting a photo of the perched eagle even tougher, it was a windy day, and the branches on the tree that the eagle was perched in kept blocking my view of its head. So, since I could tell that the eagle was hunting, and with the strong wind blowing, I moved into a position that I hope would yield a good photo of the eagle when it decided to fly in search of food. Although I’ve been fooled more than a few times, large birds generally prefer to take off into the wind, especially a strong wind.

I sat there waiting, and waiting, watching the eagle. I sat there so long that I began to wonder how many calories it was burning as it bobbed its head all around, looking for a meal. Finally, my patience paid off.

Adult bald eagle in flight

That’s full frame, but I missed the composition slightly, the eagle is a bit too low in the frame. I continued shooting…

Adult bald eagle in flight

… until the eagle was flying slightly away from me. I let up on the shutter release, but continued to track the eagle in the viewfinder. When it banked towards me…

Adult bald eagle in flight

…I shot another burst…

Adult bald eagle in flight

…until the eagle filled the frame again.

Adult bald eagle in flight

Just after this next shot, the eagle was so close to me, and moving so fast, that this is my last good photo of it.

Adult bald eagle in flight

Not bad, but you may have been able to tell by the sky behind the eagle that the bright blue sky that I had for my first photo of the eagle perched in the tree was gone. I had been there watching the eagle so long that the sky had clouded over by the time it took flight.

In some ways, it seems silly to sit and watch one bird, or one species of bird, for as long as I did that day, given the limited time that I have available to me to be out with the camera. Although the quality of my photos is improved when I sit and wait for just the right subject, or the right light, I end up shooting very few photos over all. In the case of the eagle, as I sat waiting for it to fly, the quality of light that I had actually got worse instead of better. Still, I was pleased by how well those photos turned out as far as sharpness, and my ability to track the eagle as it flew.

I also spent too much time watching a snowy owl.

Snowy owl

Where the owl was perched, I didn’t really have a clear view of it as I have in my other posts lately. It was down in the rocks and vegetation, and worst of all, the sun was behind the owl when I had the best view of it. Still, I used the occasion to test the 400 mm lens with the 2 X tele-converter on it to shoot this uncropped head shot of the owl.

Snowy owl

Using Lightroom or Photoshop, I could remove the vegetation in the right side of the frame, but it really isn’t worth the effort. I may have gotten a better photo if I had sat there longer watching the owl, but I could tell that it really wanted to take a nap in the warm sunshine of the day. This photo that I shot as I left the owl shows that.

Snowy owl

So, I spent the entire time that I had to be out and came back with just those few images to show for it. It’s something that I struggle with every time I go out with the camera, should I shoot photos the way that I used to, run and gun style, getting more varied subjects, or should I sit and wait, hoping for the best possible image that I can get that day.

It’s now the middle of December, and I haven’t been out with the camera at all this month. For one thing, I’ve been working eight days straight at a time, then I get one day off. To make things worse, it’s been snowing almost every day since the last time that I was out.

Since I work for a company contracted to carry the mail for the Postal Service, this is the busy time of the year for us. Things should slow down after the first of the year, but I have no idea what my schedule will be then. Right now, I’ve been starting a couple of hours either side of midnight, and completing my shift in the morning. That’s not a great schedule for getting outside to shoot photos, because I don’t want to screw up my sleep schedule when I do have a day off from work. To make things even worse, twice last week the dispatcher called me while I was sleeping to tell me when I was starting work that night. Things are settling down now, I have my full schedule for this week, and I even know what day I have off in advance.

Then, there’s the snow, as I said, it’s been snowing just about every day this month. There haven’t been any big storms, just light snow that never seems to stop falling. We can thank the Great Lakes for that, along with near record cold. As the cold air passes over the Great Lakes, it is warmed and it also picks up moisture from the lakes. As the air gets back over land, it cools, which causes it to lose its ability to hold the moisture that it gained out over the lakes. The results are clouds, and lake effect snow. Grand Rapids has had only 7.3% of possible sunshine over the last 11 days.  We had more minutes of sunshine before solar noon last June 7th than we had in the last 11 days total.

There’s another reason that I haven’t ventured out, since I drive a truck for a living, and I’ve been having to battle the snow and traffic so much this month, I really don’t feel like driving anywhere in the snow when I do get a chance to. I could have gone out yesterday, but it was snowing again, of course, another couple of inches of the white stuff fell. It’s the same today, we’re getting a few more inches of snow today, mostly in the morning, when I could get outside for a change.

One last reason that I’ve stayed inside, I needed the time to unwind and relax from the stress of trying to maintain the Postal Service’s schedules. I won’t go into detail, but it sure has felt good not to have to go anywhere or do anything for a change.

I’m not the only person hibernating, I have checked the reports on eBird to see if any rare species of birds have been seen in the Muskegon area, and there aren’t any. Not only no rare birds, there are very few recent reports of any birds by any one. We’ve had cold spells before, but there were always a few people out reporting their bird sightings to eBird, but not so much this winter.

With all the fresh snow, I’ve thought about trying to shoot a few landscapes, but there’s a problem with that also. Sunshine and blue skies when there’s snow on the ground looks beautiful in a photograph, but we’re under the lake effect clouds all the time. Then, even with freshly fallen snow, the photos that I’d shoot would still look dull and dreary, just as our winter weather here is.

So, as most of you already know, I’ve begun adding new posts to the My Photo Life List project that I’ve been working on. It looks as though I’ll have plenty of time this winter to do those posts, since I’m not shooting any other photos.

Well, I lied. I couldn’t sit in my apartment with the equivalent of two days off and not go out to shoot a few photos. I quickly learned why there are no bird reports coming from the Muskegon area, the lake effect snow has gotten so deep that it’s difficult to get around unless you have a vehicle with 4 wheel or all wheel drive and you’re on one of the main roads. My Subaru Forrester handled the snow well enough, but there were plenty of two-tracks that I’d normally go down that I thought it wiser to avoid on this outing. Besides, both of the lagoons at the wastewater facility are frozen over, and there are few waterfowl of any type remaining there at the wastewater facility, other than mallards.

I arrived well before sunrise, too early in fact. The snow that was falling was down to just flurries by then, after several more inches had fallen over night. I sat and checked out all my camera gear while I was waiting for it to get light enough to shoot any photos, and I also went over my work schedule for the up coming week. I had stopped off at work on my way to Muskegon to see if it had been posted, and it had.

It must be that the Christmas rush is slowing a little, because I did get a schedule for the entire week, including my day off from work, so that was a plus.

Once it became light enough for me to see, I set off in search of birds or a landscape scene to photograph. Of course, the first bird that I saw other than mallards was a snowy owl, one of five that I saw on this day. I didn’t like the set-up if I had approached the owl from where I first spotted it, so I decided to circle around the owl and approach it from the opposite direction. Because of the deep snow, I had to take the long way around, and on my way, I saw a small flock of Canada geese, with one snow goose hanging out with the Canada geese. I went past them, turned around, which wasn’t easy, then waited for more light.

Once I saw that the exposure settings needed could be obtained in the light available, I went back to the geese. At first, my biggest problem was other geese moving between myself and the snow goose.

Snow goose and Canada geese

But eventually, the geese settled down, and I was able to get this photo.

Snow goose and Canada geese

As you can see, it was still snowing lightly at the time, and the snow goose shook itself to get rid of the snow.

Snow goose and Canada geese

It was interesting, I saw that several of the geese had allowed themselves to be buried in the snow other than their heads, although I wasn’t able to get a photo of that. It makes sense, snow is good insulation from the cold wind, as silly as that sounds. So, I wondered why the geese that had moved were shaking the new snow off from themselves, I can only assume that it was because they were going to move to another location to feed soon. I returned a short time later, and the geese had done just that, flown off somewhere to eat.

Anyway, I went back to the snowy owl I first spotted…

Snowy owl

…and shot a few photos of it.

Snowy owl

It isn’t easy to get the owl to stand out in a white world where the ground is white from snow, and the sky is white from clouds.

In my quest to find other species of birds, I tried to get photos of the snow buntings, of which there were many, but they never sat still long enough for me to get close to any of them. I don’t know how they survive, they form large flocks and they never sit and feed in one location for more than a few seconds. The flock lands, they pick up a few seeds, then the entire flock moves on to the next spot. It seems to me that they are consuming more calories with their constant movements than are able to take in for the few seconds that they are on the ground.

But, I did find an American kestrel to photograph, all puffed out against the cold.

American kestrel

They are about the size of a dove, and very wary. That’s a species of bird that I should use my portable hide in an attempt to get better photos of.

American kestrel

I also found one great blue heron trying to stay out of the snow and cold by hunkering down under a small tree hanging out over the water.

Great blue heron

That brings me to this bird, a dark morph red-tailed hawk.

Dark morph red-tailed hawk in flight

I saw this, or a similar one, several times last spring, and I was never sure what it was. As you can see, it looks completely different as far as markings, than a typical red-tailed hawk, as shown in this earlier photo from last summer.

Red-tailed hawk in flight

The dark morphed hawk in the photo above, also like the one that I saw in the spring, was very wary, and never let me approach close enough for a good photo to aid me in making the right identification. The photo of the dark morph hawk isn’t very good, but at least it allowed me to make the proper identification.

Other than what I’ve shown so far, the only other bird that I was able to get photos of worth posting was yet another of the snowy owls.

Snowy owl

I was going to say that I saw no reason to return to the Muskegon County wastewater facility in the foreseeable future, due to the amount of snow on the ground. Getting around was difficult, and most of the two tracks had snow so deep that I didn’t dare test the limits of my all wheel drive Subaru. But, we’ve had a bit of a warm-up here, that hadn’t been forecast. By the time my next day off from work rolls around, most of the over a foot of snow on the ground should be gone. The warm-up will be short-lived though, it’s forecast to get very cold here next week, with more lake effect snow to go with the cold.

So, I had my day off from work, and most of the snow had indeed melted. However, most of the open water at the wastewater facility was still frozen over, so there were just a few waterfowl left there. I shot this male mallard soon after sunrise.

Male mallard in flight


Male mallard in flight


Male mallard in flight

There were also plenty of Canada geese around, but I didn’t bother shooting any photos of them.

With most of the snow having melted, I was able to get around to more places easier, but I still had a difficult time finding any species of birds other than the mallards, a few northern shovelers, and of course, snowy owls.

Snowy owl

Here’s another one, this one…

Snowy owl

…had been posing for the other photographers that were there to see the owls.

Bird watchers in action

I’m getting bored with the few birds that there are to photograph this time of year, but I’ll throw in one more snowy owl, because this one was shot with the 2 X tele-converter behind the 400 mm prime lens and manually focused.

Snowy owl

My only other photos from this day were a series that I shot of a whitetail doe running, or I should say bounding.

Whitetail doe

They make it look so effortless as they run like that, someday I hope to get a good photo of one in action. Even better would be a video.

Okay, I’ve been trying to think of other subjects to shoot this time of year, and so far, I’m drawing blanks.

A few years ago, I went to the Kalamazoo Air Zoo and shot the planes that they have on exhibit there, because I’m interested in planes. I’ve also gone to the Frederick Meijer Gardens and Sculpture Park to shoot some of the flower shows there over the years as well. I suppose that since the posts that I did when I visited before were so long ago, that most of the people reading my blog wouldn’t remember the earlier posts, but I would. Also, the rules for photographers at both venues make photography very difficult, such as the no tripod rule that both venues have. The other indoor venues that I can think of visiting probably wouldn’t yield a blog post.

I’ve been thinking of shooting the historic buildings in the area, but so far, I’ve only gotten to the point of thinking about which buildings may be interesting enough to include in a blog post.

In past winters, I have done some testing of my photo gear inside, under controlled conditions, to see what works and what doesn’t, but I think that I have a firm handle on that now, and I’ve also learned that what works under controlled conditions doesn’t always work in the field. There are a few things that I’ll test this winter, one will be a test of ways which I can get the 400 mm prime lens to focus closer than it’s designed 11 feet minimum focusing distance. That distance is all right when I’m shooting larger birds like the snowy owls or eagles, when I can fill the frame with birds that size, but 11 feet is too far away from small birds, and I’d love to use a lens as sharp as that when photographing small birds just to see how sharp that lens really is.

It’s funny in a way, the 100-400 mm lens is almost as sharp as the 400 mm prime lens is, there’s much less of a difference in sharpness between those two lenses and those lenses and the other long lenses that I used to use for birding. In fact, if I didn’t have the 400 mm prime lens, I’d be astounded by the sharpness of the 100-400 mm lens. Yet, I still want to use the 400 mm prime lens whenever I can for that little bit extra in sharpness. That’s even though when I reduce my RAW files to JPEG for my blog, the slight difference all but disappears when you see the photos in my blog.

What I should do is take the 100-400 mm lens to the Muskegon Lake Nature Preserve, fill the feeders there with seed, and sit and shoot our winter resident species of birds until the cold overcomes me. I’ve been thinking of doing just that, but it would be nice to have good light if I did. Sunny winter days in West Michigan are as rare as hen’s teeth though. But, that applies to anything that I’d like to photograph this time of year, without light, photography becomes difficult.

In the meantime, I’ve been watching more how to videos online, and I’m also working on goals and plans for the coming year. Also, I’ll be adding more posts to the My Photo Life List over the winter as well.

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!


Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

Note: this post, while published, is a work in progress, as are all posts in this series, My Photo Life List. My goal is to photograph every species of bird that is seen on a regular basis here in Michigan, working from a list compiled by the Michigan chapter of the Audubon Society. This will be a lifelong project, that I began in January of 2013, and as I shoot better photos of this, or any other species, I will update the post for that species with better photos when I can. While this series is not intended to be a field guide per se, my minimum standard for the photos in this series is that one has to be able to make a positive identification of the species in my photos. The information posted here is from either my observations or the Wikipedia, the online free encyclopedia, however, I have personally shot all the photos appearing in this series.

Bobolink, Dolichonyx oryzivorus

The bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) is a small New World blackbird and the only member of the genus Dolichonyx.

Adults are 16–18 cm (6.3–7.1 in) long with short finch-like bills. They weigh about 1 oz (28 g). Adult males are mostly black with creamy napes and white scapulars, lower backs, and rumps. Adult females are mostly light brown, although their coloring includes black streaks on the back and flanks, and dark stripes on the head; their wings and tails are darker. The collective name for a group of bobolinks is a chain.

The bobolink breeds in the summer in North America across much of southern Canada and the northern United States. It migrates long distances, wintering in southern South America in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay. One bird was tracked migrating 12,000 mi (19,000 km) over the course of the year, often flying long distances up to 1,100 mi (1,800 km) in a single day, then stopping to recuperate for days or weeks.

They often migrate in flocks, feeding on cultivated grains and rice, which leads to them being considered a pest by farmers in some areas. Although bobolinks migrate long distances, they have rarely been sighted in Europe—like many vagrants from the Americas, the overwhelming majority of records are from the British Isles.

The species has been known in the southern United States as the “reedbird,” or the “ricebird” from their consumption of large amounts of the grain from rice fields in South Carolina and the Gulf States during their southward migration in the fall. One of the species’ main migration routes is through Jamaica, where they’re called “butter-birds” and at least historically were collected as food, having fattened up on the aforementioned rice.

Their breeding habitats are open grassy fields, especially hay fields, across North America. In high-quality habitats, males are often polygynous. Females lay five to six eggs in a cup-shaped nest, which is always situated on the ground and is usually well-hidden in dense vegetation. Both parents feed the young.

Bobolinks forage on or near the ground, and mainly eat seeds and insects.

Males sing bright, bubbly songs in flight.

The numbers of these birds are declining due to loss of habitat. Bobolinks are a species at risk in Nova Scotia, and throughout Canada. In Vermont, a 75% decline was noted between 1966 and 2007. Originally, they were found in tall grass prairie and other open areas with dense grass. Although hay fields are suitable nesting habitat, fields which are harvested early, or at multiple times, in a season may not allow sufficient time for young birds to fledge. Delaying hay harvests by just 1.5 weeks can improve bobolink survival by 20%. This species increased in numbers when horses were the primary mode of transportation, requiring larger supplies of hay.

On to my photos:

These photos were shot at the Muskegon County wastewater facility, the first two in July of 2017, and the other one, a few years earlier as I tried to get close to one.

Male bobolink in full breeding plumage


Male bobolink in full breeding plumage


Male bobolink

This is number 203 in my photo life list, only 147 to go!

That’s it for this one, thanks for stopping by!